Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) is a protocol that allows users to access and control remote computers. While it offers user-friendly flexibility, it also introduces significant security risks to your organization's attack surface. Understanding the specific risks associated with RDP is essential for developing effective mitigation strategies.


Using Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) introduces several security threats that organizations and users should be aware of. Understanding and addressing these threats is essential for maintaining the security of systems and data when using RDP. Organizations should adopt a layered security approach, combining technical measures with user education and proactive monitoring to mitigate the risks effectively

  • Port Exposure and Network Visibility:
    Threat: RDP typically uses port 3389, which, if left open to the internet, exposes your network to potential attacks.
    Mitigation: Consider restricting RDP access to specific IP addresses or using a Virtual Private Network (VPN) to limit exposure and enhance network security.
  • Vulnerabilities and Exploits:
    Threat: RDP software and the underlying operating system may have vulnerabilities that can be exploited by attackers to gain access or execute malicious code.
    Mitigation: Regularly update and patch RDP software and the operating system to address known vulnerabilities. Monitor security advisories for the latest updates.
  • Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) Attacks:
    Threat: Unsecured RDP sessions may be susceptible to interception, allowing attackers to eavesdrop on communication between the client and server.
    Mitigation: Use encryption, such as VPNs or secure RDP configurations, to protect data during transit and guard against MitM attacks.
  • Brute Force Attacks:
    Threat: Attackers may attempt to gain unauthorized access by systematically trying different username and password combinations.
    Mitigation: Implement strong password policies, use multi-factor authentication (MFA), and configure account lockout policies to limit the number of failed login attempts.
  • Credential Theft:
    Threat: Attackers may employ phishing or other tactics to steal RDP credentials, enabling unauthorized access.
    Mitigation: Educate users about phishing risks, implement endpoint protection, and regularly conduct security awareness training. Consider using MFA to add an extra layer of security.
  • Lateral Movement and Network Exploitation:
    Threat: Once inside a network, attackers may use compromised RDP sessions to move laterally, escalate privileges, and target critical systems.
    Mitigation: Implement network segmentation, limit user privileges, and monitor RDP sessions for unusual activities to detect and respond to potential security incidents.
  • Ransomware Attack:
    Threat: RDP is often targeted by ransomware actors as an entry point to deploy ransomware on systems and encrypt valuable data.
    Mitigation: Strengthen RDP security, regularly backup critical data, and employ endpoint protection to detect and prevent ransomware attacks.

Ransomware actors exploiting RDP

  • SamSam:
    Tactics: SamSam was notorious for targeting organizations by exploiting vulnerabilities in RDP. They actively scanned the internet for systems with exposed RDP ports and used brute-force attacks or exploited weak credentials to gain unauthorized access.
    Targets: The group often targeted high-profile sectors, including healthcare, government, and critical infrastructure.
  • Crysis/Dharma:
    Tactics: Crysis (also known as Dharma) has been linked to attacks where RDP was used to gain entry into networks. The group often demanded high ransom payments for decrypting files.
    Evolution: Crysis/Dharma has evolved over time, adapting its tactics and leveraging RDP vulnerabilities to compromise systems.
  • Ryuk:
    Tactics: Ryuk is a sophisticated ransomware strain that has been associated with targeted attacks on large organizations. While it does not exclusively rely on RDP, it has been observed using various methods, including exploiting RDP, to move laterally within networks.
    High Ransom Demands: Ryuk is known for demanding significant ransom amounts and is often associated with financially motivated attacks.
  • Phobos:
    Tactics: Phobos is a ransomware variant that has been reported to use RDP as one of its infection vectors. The group behind Phobos typically targets businesses and organizations.
    Double Extortion: Like many modern ransomware groups, Phobos often engages in "double extortion," stealing sensitive data before encrypting files and threatening to release it if the ransom is not paid.
  • GandCrab:
    Tactics: While GandCrab has been officially shut down, it was a prevalent ransomware-as-a-service (RaaS) offering. It was known to exploit RDP vulnerabilities and weak passwords to infect systems.
    Ransomware-as-a-Service: GandCrab was unique in its model, where different criminal affiliates could use the ransomware, sharing profits with the developers.


When implementing any alternative remote access solution, it's crucial to follow security best practices:

  • SSH (Secure Shell):
    Use Case: Secure command-line access and file transfers.
    Security Features: Strong encryption, public-key authentication, and the ability to tunnel other protocols securely.
    Notable Implementations: OpenSSH (open-source), PuTTY (Windows), WinSCP (Windows, for file transfers).
  • VPN (Virtual Private Network):
    Use Case: Securely connect remote users to a private network.
    Security Features: Encrypted tunnel for all network traffic, often includes authentication and authorization mechanisms.
    Notable Implementations: OpenVPN, Cisco AnyConnect, Microsoft VPN.
  • VNC (Virtual Network Computing):
    Use Case: Remote desktop access and control.
    Security Features: Encrypted versions (such as VNC over SSH), password authentication, and support for multi-factor authentication.
    Notable Implementations: TightVNC, RealVNC, TigerVNC.
  • TeamViewer:
    Use Case: Remote desktop access with cross-platform support.
    Security Features: End-to-end encryption, two-factor authentication, and session recording.
    Note: While TeamViewer is user-friendly, ensure proper configuration and account security practices.
  • AnyDesk:
    Use Case: Lightweight and fast remote desktop access.
    Security Features: TLS encryption, two-factor authentication, and session recording.
    Note: Similar to TeamViewer, be mindful of security configurations.
  • Splashtop:
    Use Case: Remote desktop access for individuals and businesses.
    Security Features: TLS and 256-bit AES encryption, device authentication, and two-factor authentication.
    Note: Provides both personal and business solutions.
  • Guacamole:
    Use Case: Web-based remote desktop gateway.
    Security Features: Support for SSL/TLS, multi-factor authentication, and LDAP integration.
    Note: Guacamole enables access via a web browser without requiring client software.
  • Radmin (Remote Administrator):
    Use Case: Remote control and support.
    Security Features: 256-bit AES encryption, Windows authentication, and IP address filtering.
    Note: Focused on fast and secure remote access.


Implementing specific actions and security measures is essential to secure RDP effectively. Here are recommended actions to enhance the security of RDP:

  • Enable Network Level Authentication (NLA):
    Ensure that Network Level Authentication is enabled on your RDP server. NLA requires authentication to occur before a remote session is established, adding an extra layer of security by validating the user's credentials before allowing access.
  • Restrict RDP Access:
    Limit RDP access to specific IP addresses or use a Virtual Private Network (VPN) to create a secure tunnel for RDP traffic. This helps reduce exposure to the internet and ensures that only authorized users can connect remotely.
  • Use Strong Authentication Methods:
    Implement strong authentication methods, such as multi-factor authentication (MFA), to enhance user verification. MFA adds an additional layer of security by requiring users to provide multiple forms of identification, reducing the risk of unauthorized access.
  • Implement Account Lockout Policies:
    Configure account lockout policies to prevent brute force attacks. This limits the number of unsuccessful login attempts, reducing the risk of unauthorized access through repeated login attempts.
    Regularly Update and Patch Systems:
    Keep both the operating system and RDP software up-to-date with the latest security patches. Regularly check for updates and apply them promptly to address known vulnerabilities and protect against potential exploits.
  • Use Encryption:
    Ensure that RDP sessions are encrypted to protect data during transit. Use protocols like Transport Layer Security (TLS) or set up a VPN to create a secure communication channel between the client and server, preventing interception and eavesdropping.
  • Change Default Ports:
    Consider changing the default RDP port (TCP 3389) to a non-standard port. While this won't provide foolproof security, it can help deter automated attacks that target default ports. However, note that this measure alone is not sufficient and should be part of a broader security strategy.
  • Audit and Monitor RDP Sessions:
    Enable logging for RDP sessions and regularly review logs for any suspicious activities. Set up alerts for multiple failed login attempts or other anomalous behavior. Monitoring and auditing are crucial for detecting and responding to potential security incidents.
  • Employ Endpoint Protection:
    Install and maintain robust endpoint protection solutions on both the client and server sides. This includes antivirus software, firewalls, and intrusion detection/prevention systems to detect and prevent malicious activities.
  • Regular Security Training for Users:
    Educate users on RDP security best practices, including the importance of strong passwords, avoiding public networks for RDP sessions, and reporting any suspicious activities promptly.
  • Regular Security Audits:
    Conduct regular security audits to identify and address potential vulnerabilities in your RDP infrastructure. This proactive approach helps ensure that security measures remain effective over time.