Introduction

The Law of 26 April 2024 establishing a framework for the cybersecurity of networks and information systems of general interest for public security (the "NIS2 Law") transposes Directive (EU) 2022/2555 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 December 2022 (the "NIS2 Directive") in Belgium. It will enter into force on 18th October 2024.

The NIS2 law updates the Belgian legal framework on cybersecurity by superseding the law of 7th April 2019 establishing a framework for the security of networks and information systems of general interest for public security (NIS1 law). The new text is accompanied by the Royal Decree from 9th June 2024 which executes its provisions, for example by designating the Centre for Cybersecurity Belgium (CCB) as the national cybersecurity authority.

Networks and information systems have become central elements of our society. However, the number, scale, sophistication, frequency and impact of incidents involving these networks and information systems now pose considerable threats to the population, businesses and public authorities.

The aim of the law is to strengthen cybersecurity measures, incident management and the supervision of entities providing services that are essential for maintaining critical societal or economic activities. It also aims to improve the coordination of public policies in the area of cybersecurity.

Scope of application

How do I know if my organisation is in scope or not?

Overview

To be covered by the Belgian NIS2 law, an organisation must in principle:

  1. Provide a service listed in annexes I and II of the NIS2 law in the European Union; 
  2. Exceed the size thresholds of a medium-sized enterprise set out in the Recommendation 2003/361/EC, i.e. have a workforce of at least 50 full-time workers or an annual turnover or balance sheet total exceeding 10 million euros; and
  3. Be established in Belgium

These criteria are explained in the following sections. 

In addition to the explanations on this page, you can also do our scope test:

 

0. Before analysing the NIS2 law

Before analysing the law itself, it is important to first verify two eventualities that have an impact of how the NIS2 scope applies to an organisation.

First, it is important to note that the NIS2 law automatically applies to all entities identified as operators of critical infrastructure in the sense of the law of 1st July 2011 on the security and protection of critical infrastructure, regardless of their size. Under the NIS2 law these operators are essential entities.

Second, entities identified as operators of essential services (OES) or digital service providers (DSP) under the NIS1 law shall in principle also fall under the NIS2 law if they exceed the necessary size thresholds (see section 1). The reason for this is simple: the scope of the NIS2 directive is an extension of the scope of the NIS1 directive.

1. The size of an entity ("size-cap")

To fall into the scope of the NIS2 law, an organisation must be of a certain size. In principle, an organisation must at least be a medium-sized enterprise, calculated using the annex of Commission Recommendation 2003/361/EC, but there are certain exceptions (more on these below).

The size of an organisation is established using two criteria: staff headcount (measured in full-time equivalents (FTE)*) and financial amounts (annual turnover and/or annual balance sheet total). How exactly these two criteria are established can be found in the annex of the Recommendation itself or in the Commission’s handy user guide to the SME definition

To determine the size of an organisation, one must first look at the staff headcount: 

  • < 50 FTE*: micro or small enterprise
  • ≥ 50 FTE* and < 250 FTE*: medium-sized enterprise
  • > 250 FTE* : large enterprise

Afterwards, the staff headcount must be combined with the financial amounts to receive the definitive categorisation: an enterprise may choose to meet either the turnover or the balance sheet total ceiling. It may exceed one of the financial ceilings without impact on its SME status. We thus only look at the lowest of the two amounts

The ceilings for annual turnover are the following:

  • ≤ 10 mil. €: micro or small enterprise
  • > 10 mil. € and ≤ 50 mil. €: medium-sized enterprise
  • > 50 mil. €: large enterprise

The ceilings for annual balance sheet total are the following:

  • ≤ 10 mil. €: micro or small enterprise
  • > 10 mil. € and ≤ 43 mil. €: medium-sized enterprise
  • > 43 mil. €: large enterprise

Example 1: an enterprise with 35 FTE* (small) has an annual turnover of 1.000.000€ (small) and an annual balance sheet total of 50.000.000€ (large). For the financial amounts, it choses to only look at the lowest: its turnover. Thus, it’s a small or micro enterprise.

Example 2: an enterprise with 80 FTE* (medium) has an annual turnover of 1.000.000€ (small) and an annual balance sheet total of 70.000.000€ (large). For the financial amounts, it choses to only look at the lowest: its turnover. Because the turnover is small but the staff headcount is medium, it’s a medium-sized enterprise.

Visually, it looks like this:

 

If we combine the different possible sizes with the service criterion, we get the following scope of application (with some exceptions - see below):

 Medium-sized enterpriseLarge enterprise
Annex I servicesImportantEssential
Annex II servicesImportantImportant

* Full-time equivalents (FTE) (called “annual work units (AWU)” in the Recommendation) are the number of persons who worked full-time within the enterprise in question or on its behalf during the entire reference year under consideration. The work of persons who have not worked the full year, the work of those who have worked part-time, regardless of duration, and the work of seasonal workers are counted as fractions of AWU. The Recommendation and the guide further detail which staff members have to be counted.

The difference between essential and important entities mainly relates to how strictly they are supervised and sanctioned.

It is important to note that the Recommendation also stipulates that the calculation of the size of an organisation that is part of a group (so-called “partner enterprises” or “linked enterprises”) implies a consolidation of the data of the different components of this group. Further details on this subject can be found in the Recommendation or in the guide.

There are nevertheless a number of exceptions to the size-cap. Certain types of entities fall into the scope of application of the NIS2 law, regardless of their size:

  • Qualified trust service providers (essential)
  • Non-qualified trust service providers (important if micro, small or medium enterprise and essential if large enterprise)
  • DNS service providers (essential)
  • TLD name registries (essential)
  • Domaine name registration services (only for the registration obligation)
  • Providers of public electronic communications networks (essential)
  • Providers of publicly available electronic communications services (essential)
  • Entities identified as operators of critical infrastructure under the law of 1st July 2011 on the security and protection of critical infrastructure (essential)
  • Public administration entities depending on the federal State (essential)

Independently of these rules, the national cybersecurity authority (the CCB) will also be able to specifically identify entities as "essential" or "important", for example where they are the sole provider of a service or where the disruption of the service provided could have a significant impact on public security, public safety or public health.

2. The service provided by an entity

Beyond the size-cap, The service condition requires an organisation to fully analyse every single of its services provided, by sector and sub-sector, to third parties. This is important, given that even the most ancillary service provided may make an organisation as a whole fall into the scope of the NIS2 law, except when stated otherwise in the definition of said service.

All services falling under the NIS2 law are detailed in annexes I and II (or in the definitions) of the law. If an organisation provides one of the services mentioned there and fulfils the corresponding size criterion, then it falls into the scope of the NIS2 law if it can be linked to Belgium (see section 3).

The different services are grouped together by sectors. Here is the list of the different sectors and sub-sectors:

Highly critical sectors (annex I)Other critical sectors (annex II)
  1. Energy
    1. Electricity
    2. District heating and cooling
    3. Oil
    4. Gas
    5. Hydrogen
  2. Transport
    1. Air
    2. Rail
    3. Water
    4. Road
  3. Banking
  4. Financial market infrastructure
  5. Health
  6. Drinking water
  7. Waster water
  8. Digital infrastructure
  9. ICT service management (B2B)
  10. Public administration
  11. Space
  1. Postal and courier services
  2. Waste management
  3. Manufacture, production and distribution of chemicals
  4. Production, processing and distribution of food
  5. Manufacturing
    1. Manufacture of medical devices and in vitro diagnostic medical devices
    2. Manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products
    3. Manufacture of electrical equipment
    4. Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c.
    5. Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers
    6. Manufacture of other transport equipment
  6. Digital providers
  7. Research

 Most services are defined in reference to definitions found in EU legislative instruments. It is of very high importance to consult these definitions to verify if they correspond to the actual service provided by an organisation. 

An organisation analysing whether it falls into the scope of the NIS2 law thus has to make the link between a service it provides and a service mentioned in the annexes of the law. It should be noted that it is possible that an organisation covers multiple services and falls into multiple sectors.

For a better overview of the scope of the law, we invite you to consult our visual summary of the scope:

 

 

3. Link with Belgium

In principle, the Belgian NIS2 law only applies to entities established in Belgium that provide their services or carry out their activities within the EU. Two concepts are important here:

  1. The concept of “establishment” simply implies the actual pursuit of an activity by means of a permanent installation, irrespective of the legal form adopted, whether this is the registered office, a simple branch or a subsidiary with legal personality.
  2. The concept of “entity” is defined in article 8, 37° of the NIS2 law as a natural or legal person created and recognised as such under the national law of its place of establishment, which may, acting under its own name, exercise rights and be subject to obligations.

However, there are three exceptions to the rule of establishment in Belgium:

  1. The Belgian NIS2 law applies to providers of public electronic communications networks or providers of publicly available electronic communications services, which provide their services in Belgium;
  2. The Belgian NIS2 law applies to DNS service providers, TLD name registries, entities providing domain name registration services, cloud computing service providers, data centre service providers, content delivery network providers, managed service providers, managed security service providers, as well as providers of online marketplaces, of online search engines or of social networking services platforms, if they have their main establishment in Belgium or their legal representative for the EU in Belgium*;
  3. The Belgian NIS2 law applies to public administration entities, which have been established by Belgium.

The concept of “main establishment” refers to the establishment where the decisions related to the cybersecurity risk-management measures are predominantly taken. If this cannot be determined or if such decisions are not taken in the Union, the main establishment shall be the establishment where the entity carries out cybersecurity operations. If this place can again not be determined, then the main establishment is where the entity has the highest number of employees in the Union.

* If an entity referred to in point 2) is not established in the EU but provides its services there, it must appoint a legal representative who is established in a Member State where it provides its services. If this representative is located in Belgium, the entity will be considered as having its main establishment in Belgium.

If an entity has several establishments in different EU Member States, it will be subject to the transposition laws in each of the Member States concerned. The various competent national authorities will work together regarding inspections and the notification of significant incidents.

Not in scope? Don’t forget identification and supply chain!

It is possible that after a throughout analysis of the scope of application of the NIS2 law, certain organisations realise that they do, in fact, not fall under said law. All non-NIS2 organisations should be aware that the NIS2 law can still affect them in two ways.

First, the national cybersecurity authority (the CCB) can identify certain organisations, regardless of their size, as essential or important entities under the NIS2 law in four different circumstances:

  1. the entity is the sole provider, in Belgium, of a service which is essential for the maintenance of critical societal or economic activities;
  2. disruption of the service provided by the entity could have a significant impact on public safety, public security or public health;
  3. disruption of the service provided by the entity could induce a significant systemic risk, in particular for sectors where such disruption could have a cross-border impact;
  4. the entity is critical because of its specific importance at national or regional level for the particular sector or type of service, or for other interdependent sectors in Belgium.

This process unfolds in concertation with the concerned entity and other related actors, such as the sectoral authority (if it exists) and the relevant federated entities. More information on this procedure can be found in article 11 of the NIS2 law or in our FAQ.

Second, an organisation may fall into the supply chain of a NIS2 entity and be faced with the obligation to implement cybersecurity risk-management measures because of a contractual requirement. NIS2 entities indeed have the obligation to insure the security of their supply chain, including security-related aspects concerning the relationships between each entity and its direct suppliers or service providers.

In this context, the Centre for Cybersecurity Belgium advises all organisations that may find themselves in the supply chain of a NIS2 entity, to at least comply with the measures set out in the CyberFundamentals (CyFun®) Framework level Basic. A NIS2 entity could theoretically impose the compliance with a certain CyFun® level onto its direct suppliers or service providers.

Obligations

What do I have to do as a NIS2 entity?

Overview

The NIS2 law imposes a number of obligations on essential and important entities. These include registration on Safeonweb@Work, implementation of cybersecurity risk-management measures, notification of significant incidents to the national CSIRT (the CCB), obligations for management and cooperation with the authorities.

All of these obligations will be detailed in the subsequent sections.

Complementary information can be found in our FAQ.

1. Registration on Safeonweb@Work

NIS2 entities falling into the scope of the Belgian NIS2 law have to register their organisation at the CCB. In practice, this registration will take the shape of an online from, to be completed on Safeonweb@Work. The current registration platform will be updated to include a form specifically related to NIS2.

The deadline for registration depends on the type of entity. In principle, essential and important entities, as well as domain name registration service providers, have 5 months from the entry into force of the law to register. With the entry into force scheduled for 18th October 2024, registration must be completed by 18th March 2025 at the latest.

When registering, companies must provide the following information:

  • Their name and Crossroads Bank for Enterprises (CBE) registration number or equivalent registration in the European Union;
  • Their current address and contact details, including email address, IP address and telephone number;
  • Where applicable, the relevant sector and subsector referred to in annex I or II of the law;
  • Where applicable, a list of the Member States in which they provide services falling within the scope of the Law.

For entities that have already provided this information to a NIS2 sectoral authority, the information only needs to be updated where necessary. If the information changes, all entities must inform the CCB immediately.

There is a slightly adapted regime for the following types of entities from the digital sectors:

  • DNS service providers;
  • TLD name registries;
  • Entities providing domain name registration services;
  • Cloud computing service providers;
  • Data centre service providers;
  • Content delivery network providers;
  • Managed service providers;
  • Managed security service providers;
  • Online marketplace providers;
  • Online search engine providers; and
  • Social networking service platform providers.

They must register within 2 months of the law entering into force, i.e. by 18th December 2024 at the latest, and provide the following information:

  • Their name;
  • Their sector, sub-sector and type of entity, as listed in Annex I or II, as applicable;
  • The address of their principal place of business and of their other legal establishments in the Union or, if they are not established in the Union, of their representative;
  • Their current contact details, including e-mail addresses and telephone numbers, and, where applicable, those of their representative;
  • The Member States in which they provide their services falling within the scope of the Law;
  • Their IP ranges.

Here again, every entity is required to inform the CCB immediately of any changes to their information.

In practice, some of this information is obtained directly from the Crossroads Bank for Enterprises (CBE) during the registration process.

2. Cybersecurity risk-management measures

Essential and important entities must take appropriate and proportionate technical, operational and organisational measures to manage the risks to the security of the networks and information systems which they use in the course of their activities or in the provision of their services. These measures must eliminate or reduce the impact of incidents on the recipients of their services and on other services.

In addition, the measures implemented have to ensure a level of security for networks and information systems that is appropriate to the existing risk, taking into account the state of the art and, where relevant, applicable European and international standards, as well as the cost of implementation. In assessing the proportionality of these measures, due account should be taken of the degree of exposure of the entity to risk, the size of the concerned entity, as well as the likelihood of incidents occurring and their severity, including societal and economic consequences.

Thus, the measures should be as well adapted as possible to the concrete situation of the concerned entity.

The NIS2 law also states that these measures are based on an "all-hazards" approach and aim to protect network and information systems and their physical environment against incidents. The law lists 11 minimum measures that every NIS2 entity must implement:

  1. Policies on risk analysis and information system security;
  2. Incident handling;
  3. Business continuity, such as backup management and disaster recovery, and crisis management;
  4. Supply chain security, including security-related aspects concerning the relationships between each entity and its direct suppliers or service providers;
  5. Security in network and information systems acquisition, development and maintenance, including vulnerability handling and disclosure;
  6. Policies and procedures to assess the effectiveness of cybersecurity risk-management measures;
  7. Basic cyber hygiene practices and cybersecurity training;
  8. Policies and procedures regarding the use of cryptography and, where appropriate, encryption;
  9. Human resources security, access control policies and asset management;
  10. The use of multi-factor authentication or continuous authentication solutions, secured voice, video and text communications and secured emergency communication systems within the entity, where appropriate;
  11. A coordinated vulnerability disclosure policy.

To facilitate the practical implementation of these measures, the Centre for Cybersecurity Belgium advises all NIS2 entities to make use of the CyberFundamentals (CyFun®) Framework, which covers all these points. A validated implementation of the CyFun Framework allows NIS2 entities to benefit from a presumption of conformity. For more information, visit our page dedicated to the CyFun Framework and see our chapter on supervision below.

3. Notification of significant incidents

The NIS2 law stipulates that essential and important entities must notify the national CSIRT (the CCB) of any significant incident affecting the provision of their services in the (sub-)sectors listed in the annexes of the law, including, where appropriate, information that makes it possible to determine whether the incident in question has a cross-border impact.

In order to fulfil this obligation, one must understand what is meant by “incident” and by “significant”. 

The NIS2 law defines “incident” as an event compromising the availability, authenticity, integrity or confidentiality of stored, transmitted or processed data or of the services offered by, or accessible via, network and information systems.

A “significant” incident is any incident which has a significant impact on the provision of services in the sectors or subsectors listed in the annexes of the NIS2 law, and which

  • has caused or is likely to cause serious disruption to the operation of any of the services in the sectors or subsectors listed in Annexes I and II or financial loss to the concerned entity; or
  • has caused, or is likely to cause, significant material, personal or non-material damage to other natural or legal persons.

If the incident in question fits this definition, then the notification shall be made to the national CSIRT (the CCB) in several stages:

  1. Without undue delay and in any event within 24 hours of becoming aware of the significant incident, the entity shall submit an early warning;
  2. Without undue delay and in any event within 72 hours (24 hours for trust service providers) of becoming aware of the significant incident, the entity shall submit an incident notification;
  3. Submit an interim report if requested to do so by the CSIRT or, where applicable, the competent authority;
  4. Submit a final report no later than one month after the submission of the incident notification referred to in point 2;
  5. If the incident is ongoing at the time of the final report, the entity shall submit a progress report and then, within one month after the handling of the incident, a final report.

In practice, notification will be made through the procedure set out on the CCB website.

Notification platform coming soon

On top of the notification to the national CSIRT, where appropriate, the concerned entities shall inform the recipients of their services of the significant incidents that may affect the provision of the services from annexes I and II provided to them. The entities shall also inform the recipients of their services that may be affected by a significant cyberthreat of said threat and of all the measures and corrections that may be taken to respond to it.

4. Obligations and responsibilities for management

The management bodies of NIS2 entities must approve cybersecurity risk management measures and oversee their implementation. If the entity breaches its obligations with regard to risk management measures, the management body is liable. 

Members of the management bodies are obliged to follow training to ensure that their knowledge and skills are sufficient to identify risks and assess cybersecurity risk-management practices and their impact on the services provided by the entity concerned. 

The explanatory memorandum of the NIS2 law defines “member of a management body” as:

Any natural or legal person who :

  1. exercises a function within or in relation to an entity which authorises him or her (a) to administer and represent the entity in question or (b) to take decisions in the name and on behalf of the entity which are legally binding on it or to participate, within a body of that entity, in the taking of such decisions, or
  2. has control over the entity, meaning the power, in law or in fact, to exercise decisive influence over the appointment of the majority of the entity’s directors or managers or over the direction of the entity’s management.

Where the entity in question is a company governed by Belgian law, this control is determined in accordance with articles 1:14 to 1:18 of the Companies and Associations Code.

Where the person whose role is being examined is a legal person, the concept of "member of a management body" is examined recursively and covers both the legal person in question and any member of a management body of that legal person.

The responsible persons and/or legal representatives of an entity must have the power to ensure that the entity complies with the law. They are liable for their failure to do so.

The liability of management bodies, responsible persons and legal representatives is without prejudice to the rules on liability applicable to public institutions, as well as the liability of civil servants and elected or appointed officials.

5. Cooperation with the authorities

The NIS2 law requires entities falling within its scope to cooperate with the national authorities responsible for its implementation, in particular the CCB and the sectoral authorities.

This cooperation generally takes the form of an exchange of information on the security of networks and information systems, but also includes cooperation between the entity and the CCB's or the sectoral inspection service.

Supervision & Sanctions

How will my organisation be controlled? What fines do I risk?

Overview

When we talk about supervision under the NIS2 law, we need to distinguish between two categories of entities: essential entities and important entities. The main difference between the two relates to supervision and sanctions:

  • Essential entities are supervised proactively ("ex ante") and reactively ("ex post"). More specifically, essential entities are subject to mandatory regular conformity assessments. 
  • Important entities are in principle only subject to "ex post" supervision, i.e. after an incident or on the basis of evidence, indications or information that an important entity is not complying with the obligations of the law.

This section will goes into detail on how the supervision will play out, which deadlines entities have to respect and what sanctions could be imposed.

More information about the CyberFundamentals Framework is available on its dedicated page.

1. Supervision of essential and important entities

Essential entities must undergo a mandatory regular conformity assessment. This assessment is carried out on the basis of a choice made by the entity between three options: 

  • A CyberFundamentals (CyFun®) certification (level essential) or verification (level important or basic) with the relevant scope of application, granted by a conformity assessment body (CAB) approved by the CCB after accreditation from BELAC;
  • An ISO/IEC 27001 certification with the relevant scope of application, issued by a CAB accredited by an accreditation body that has signed the mutual recognition agreement (MLA) governing the ISO 27001 standard within the framework of the European co-operation for Accreditation (EA) or the International Accreditation Forum (IAF);
  • An inspection by the CCB inspection service (or by a sectoral inspection service).

The conformity assessment statement that essential entities receive after the conformity assessment of their chosen framework, allows them to benefit from a presumption of conformity. Until proven otherwise, they are presumed to have respected their obligations. 

Because of the proactive and reactive supervision of essential entities, the inspection service may also inspect them at any time. For important entities, supervision is only carried out "ex post" by the inspection service. In principle, therefore, they are not subject to regular conformity assessment. However, these entities may voluntarily submit to the same regime as essential entities and as such also receive a presumption of conformity.

During its control, the CCB’s inspection service (or a sectoral inspection service, or both jointly) may have recourse to on-site inspections, off-site supervision, ad hoc audits, but also security scans and general requests for information and evidence. All NIS2 entities must at all times comply with the requests made by the inspection service(s). If they do not, they expose themselves to administrative fines.

Essential and important entities also have the possibility to use a CyFun® assurance level that is inferior to their NIS2 classification. For example, an essential entity could, based on a throughout risk-analysis, justify the use of the CyFun® level “Important”. This choice would be without prejudice to its classification as an essential entity under the NIS2 law. It should be noted that the inspection service may sanction an entity for wrongly conforming to a lower CyFun® level.

2. Supervision timeline

The NIS2 law and Royal Decree will enter into force on 18th October 2024. As a result, all the obligations of the law and the Royal Decree will apply to essential and important entities (cybersecurity measures, incident reporting, etc.) from that date onwards.

The control of essential entities will then take a gradual approach, based on the chosen path for the regular conformity assessment. 

No later than 18th April 2026, as part of the first mandatory conformity assessments, essential entities must at least:

  1. Either obtain CyFun® level important verification, in the context of an assessment carried out by a conformity assessment body (CAB) on the basis of the CyFun® framework ;
  2. Or submit to the CCB the scope and statement of applicability as part of an assessment carried out by a CAB on the basis of the ISO/IEC 27001 norm;
  3. Or submit to the CCB a CyFun® level important* self-assessment (*or level basic depending on the result of the risk-analysis), as part of an assessment carried out by the CCB inspection service;
  4. Or submit to the CCB the information security policy, the scope and the statement of applicability of the ISO/IEC 27001 norm to the CCB, as part of an assessment carried out by the CCB inspection service.

No later than 18th April 2027, essential entities opting for a CyFun® or ISO/IEC 27001 certification must have obtained it.

For entities identified by the CCB (as explained at the end of the scope section above), these deadlines start on the day that the identification is notified to the concerned entity.

3. Sanctions

Inspectors will be able to go on site, take minutes and write reports. On the basis of these findings, a procedure may be initiated to order an entity to put an end to a violation and, if necessary, to take the appropriate administrative measures, ranging from warnings to administrative fines.

Potential administrative measures and fines are imposed by the Directive. If a measure or fine is deemed necessary, the situation and any repeated offences are always de facto taken into account so that the measure or fine taken is proportionate. 

The following administrative fines can be imposed (doubled when repeated behaviour within a period of 3 years):

  • 500 to 125 000 € for non-compliance with the information obligations from art. 12 (identification process);
  • 500 to 200 000 € for an entity that has sanctioned one of its employees or subcontractors for performing the obligations of the law in good faith and within the scope of their duties;
  • 500 to 200 000 € for non-compliance with supervision obligations;
  • 500 to 7 000 000 € or 1,4 % of the total worldwide annual turnover in the preceding financial year of the undertaking to which the entity belongs, whichever is higher [important entities];
  • 500 to 10 000 000 € or 2 % of the total worldwide annual turnover in the preceding financial year of the undertaking to which the entity belongs, whichever is higher [essential entities].

The CCB may also impose the following administrative measures:

  • Issue warnings or binding instructions;
  • Order to cease conduct or to bring risk management measures or reporting obligations in compliance;
  • Order to inform the natural or legal person(s) to whom they provide services or to make public aspects of non-compliance;
  • Designate a monitoring officer [essential entities];
  • Order to implement the recommendations provided;
  • Temp. suspend a certification or authorisation concerning a part or all of the relevant services provided [essential entities];
  • Temp. prohibit the exercise of managerial functions [essential entities].

The ultimate aim of these measures and fines is to strengthen the level of cybersecurity of essential and important entities and as such also the level of cybersecurity of the whole country.

Timeline

When will all of this be applicable? What has to be done when?

The Centre for Cybersecurity Belgium created a comprehensive timeline for obligations and supervision applicable to essential and important entities:

 

Disclaimer: this page only contains information of general nature, provided by the CCB to the public about NIS2. It is not necessarily complete, exhaustive, accurate, or up-to-date, and does not constitute official advice by the CCB. 

Only the texts published in the Belgian official journal are authoritative: see the law and the royal decree.